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Ukraine

Ukraine



GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION
Ukraine is rightfully considered a picturesque land of all the riches that nature could give. Each part of Ukraine has a unique charm of its own.
The territory of Ukraine is 603,700 square kilometers, which is larger than that of France. It stretches from the Carpathians to the Don steppes and from Chernihiv forests to the Black Sea coast. Its population is more than 52 million. Ukraine is situated in the south-western part of Europe. It is bounded by Russia in the north-east, by Belarus' in the north, by Poland and Slovakia in the west, and by Hungary, Romania and Moldova in the south-west. It is washed by the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov in the south.
The main river in Ukraine is the Dnieper, the third longest river in Europe which divides Ukraine into Right-Bank and Left-Bank territories. Several other large rivers flow through Ukraine, such as the Southern Buh, the Dniester, the Desna, the Siversky Donets, the Danube, the Tysza, etc.
95 percent of the Ukrainian area is flat. These are the vast Black Sea steppes, and the rest of it is mountainous. The highest point of the Carpathians is Hoverla (2061 m). The Crimean Mountains are not very high but they are rather picturesque. The climate of Ukraine is mild. Ukraine's territory lies in the temperate belt. Ukraine has an abundant and wide variety of minerals. It has rich deposits of iron, coal, manganese ores, potash and rock-salt, phosphorites, titanium, nickel, granite, marble, lead, bauxite, rare metals and other valuable raw materials.

INDUSTRY AND AGRICULTURE
Ukraine has a ranking position among industrially developed countries. The most important factor is the priority given to the development of high-technology industry.
Ukraine's oldest industries are coal-mining and metallurgy
New branches of industry have appeared, such as power engineering, non-ferrous metallurgy, aircraft construction and the most delicate precision instruments for radio-electronic apparatuses, as well as powerful turbines, textile and food industries, car and motor vehicle industry, ship-building industry, etc.
Ukraine is producing modern supersonic airliners, grain harvesters the latest metal-cutting machine tools, computers, chemical equipment' 1 he chemical industry embraces the production of acids, alkalies' fertilizers, dyes, detergents, plastics, synthetic fibres, pharmaceutical and other goods.
There are many industrial cities in Ukraine, for example- Kharkiv an important industrial and cultural centre; Donetsk, a coal-mining centre; Odesa, a big sea port and a resort city; Lviv, a large industrial scientific and cultural centre; Zaporizhya, a metallurgical centre of Ukraine; Dnipropetrovsk, a large cosmic, machine-building and metallurgical centre and others.
In the Carpathian zone the timber furniture and paper industries have developed substantially.
The territory of Ukraine is criss-crossed by railroads and highways oil, gas pipelines and high-voltage transmission lines - all of which ensure close economic ties with Eastern and Western Europe facilated fertile black soil and the favourable climate have long facilitated the growth of agriculture in Ukraine. Ukraine is the most important producer of grain, wheat, sugar beet, flax, sunflower fruits buckwheat, vegetables, grapes.
The food industry is allied with cultivation of grapes, fruits and vegetables. Close to 40 types of vegetable crops are grown in Ukraine: cabbage, tomato, cucumber, red beet, carrot, onion, garlic etc.

SCIENCE
Ukraine is a country of developed science. The Kyiv National University named after Taras Shevchenko is one of the most important scientific and research centres of the country. Kyiv-Mohyla Academy which was founded in the seventeenth century and was a highly developed cultural centre in ancient times now are becoming the leading educational establishment in training highly-qualified specialists for our country. The National Academy of Science of Ukraine with its research institutes numbers many outstanding scientists and research workers famous for their important discoveries.
Ukraine was one of the founding members of UNO which testifies to the recognition of the Ukrainian people's great contribution to the defeat of nazism in World War II and to the international prestige of Ukraine.

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